國日報 The Chung-kuo jih pao The China Daily[3]            

'''The China Daily was published in Victoria, Hong Kong by 香港中國日報社 [Xianggang zhong guo ri bao ] she The China Daily at Hong Kong. Feng Tzu-yu before leaving for Vancouver, working as the head editorial staff for The Chinese Daily News, was the chief editor of the 中國日報 Chung-kuo jih pao The China Daily, 1899-1913, of Hong Kong[1].''

 

 

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In preparation of collecting Chinese language materials on the 1907 riot in Vancouver’s Chinatown, an article from a magazine, titled “The Asiatic Exclusion League,” gave me the impression that “The Asiatic Exclusion League” was the agitator and ought to take most of the responsibility for the 1907 riot.

Having this impression, the Chinese terminology, gong dang (literal translation is the labour party or labour union) that frequently occurred in the articles on the 1907 Riots printed on THE CHINA DAILY [ZHONG GUO RI BAO 中國日報], was thought to be referring to The Asiatic Exclusion League, even though the literal translation of The Asiatic Exclusion League could be something else in Chinese. From the context of the articles, it seemed that the author thought that 工黨 gong dang should take the blame for causing the 1907 riot to happen. Back To Top

Evidence shown in THE CHINESE WESTERN DAILY NEWS [CHUNG SAI YAT PO 中西日報] and THE CHINESE TAIWAN DAILY NEWS [HAN WEN TAIWAN RI RI XIN BAO  漢文台灣日日新報]  that the Asiatic Exclusion League was translated into 仇對東人會 Cou dui dong ya ren hui, 禁亞人會 Jin Ya ren hui or 逐亞人會 Zhu Ya ren hui, not 工黨 Gong dang, labour union or party. Therefore, the conclusion that 工黨 Gong dang does not refer to The Asiatic Exclusion League was finalized. The Asiatic Exclusion League’s leadership in the 1907 riot was only the top of the iceberg. What was under the surface was something else, that was, the long hostility toward Asians in B.C. (Roy 186)[2]

Articles on the 1907 riot on THE CHINA DAILY [ZHONG GUO RI BAO 中國日報 ] in September 1907 was full of the termonology of 工黨 Gong dang, which can be literally translated to the labor union or labor party. From the context of the articles, it seems that the Chinese people believed that the organization, 工黨 Gong dang labour union, should take full responsibility for the 1907 Riots. The fact that B.C. had a long tradition of anti-Asiatic resentment and the local labour union was actively involved in anti-Asiatic plans were neglected by major English newspapers, for example, THE TIMES. Back To Top

THE TIMES told their readers:

...The leaders of the demonstration were not Canadians, but citizens of the United States.  They were Frank Cotterill, president of the Federation of Labour of the State of Washington, A.E. Fowler, secretary of the Anti-Japanese and Korean League of the same State, and George P. Listman, a prominent Labour leader of Seatle...The actual acts of violence seem to have been committed for the most part by Canadians, but that the violence was due to the agitation of the Americans there appears to be not a shadow of doubt." (THE TIMES, Sep. 11, 1907)

The London and China telegraphcorrespondent had perceived the “over zealous labour union system” in B.C. might be the cause of the 1907 Riots as late as on October 7th, 1907, almost a month later from the riot, while the Chinese and Japanese newspapers reflected that the local labour unions were most responsible for the riots right after September 7th, when the riot happened (P.872). Back To Top

 

 

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[1] Lim, Quan. THE CHINESE TIMES [ DA HAN GONG BAO 大漢公報]. U.B.C. Asian Studies Division, 1971

[2] Roy, Patricia E. A white man's province : British Columbia politicians and Chinese and Japanese immigrants, 1858-1914. The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 1989.

[3]中國日報. 香港中國日報社編. 臺北 : 中國國民黨中央委員會黨史史料編纂委員會, 民58 [1969]